Disease forecaster Ascel Bio today is issuing an alert for Mumps disease across the United States.
Warnings for New York and Oklahoma are issued as these states are seeing higher incidence rates above forecast, according to the most recent data from early October 2016.
Ascel Bio’s current projections for the mentioned states are expected to decrease as we approach winter. Since last observations, case counts have surged upwards and exceeded our forecast highs. Prior levels from late September were in range with our forecast low. Oklahoma in particular exhibited a strong and drastic rise in cases that considerably exceeded a projected peak in September.
Transmission of the disease is largely through respiratory droplets from infected individuals. The mumps virus colonizes the nasopharynx and lymph nodes. It develops for a duration of 12 to 25 days, after which for a period of 3 to 5 days, the virus enters the bloodstream and infects tissues and glands such as the meninges, testes, ovaries, pancreas, salivary glands. Although infrequent, complications can arise such as oorchitis (testicular inflammation), oophoritis (ovarian inflammation), pancreatitis, deafness, encephalitis, viral meningitis. In the post-vaccine era, these complications have all greatly decreased. Symptoms resolve 10 days after, with symptoms decreasing around a one-week period. Diagnosis of mumps is usually confirmed by clinical evaluation, especially by presentation of parotitis. Laboratory diagnosis can also be performed through oral, buccal or blood specimens with virus culture being the standard for mumps confirmation. No specific therapy for mumps exists. Medical care is entirely supportive and specific to patient’s symptoms. Treatment and management includes analgesics or NSAIDs. Topical application of warm or cold packs to the swollen parotid glands may give relief. Patients presenting oorchitis can also apply cold packs to inflamed testes. Currently two vaccines are available in providing protection against mumps, MMR or MMRV given during childhood years.